Black ABS pipes or PVC roof vents that are used to vent drain and sewer lines, generally, should be painted. This is also often recommended for water heater or furnace vents, if PVC material. The paint helps protect the pipes from the suns UV rays.
PVC and ABS vents through roof, exposed to sunlight, should be protected by water base synthetic latex paints. Your choice of colors, unless the city or HOA has restrictions on what colors to use.
Every 3 or 5 years, check your vents for deteriorated paint. When needed, give them a fresh coat of paint and check to see if any caulking, taring or sealing needs to be done on them as well. Kill two birds with one stone.
Who to consult? Painters, handymen and roofers.
Painting, general maintenance and caulking is often handled by home owners and handymen. Repairs or replacement is often done by roofers.